Realistic assessment and authentic information about the current impacts, cascading risks and threats of climate change at the local and regional levels using open source models and Copernicus climate station data.

Summary of project:

Climate changes affect Earth's ecosystems in different ways. Rising temperatures and increased temperature extremes have major impacts on the climate system such as patterns of precipitation, evaporation and evapotranspiration. Where climate change has led to various environmental issues; Consequently, average temperature and sea level rise and ocean acidification. These differences have affected the atmosphere, marine and terrestrial ecosystems; However, it remains uncertain to what extent this change is being reversed. The rapid climate changes observed in the past decades and their direct effects on ecosystems are of great interest to research and study. Therefore, this project will investigate the impacts of climate change on three major ecosystems, the atmosphere, land and sea, taking into account different parameters for each ecosystem. This research focuses on estimating some climate factors using satellite observations to determine climate changes over Egypt. It is planned that this goal will be achieved through measurements of some of Egypt's land, sea and air characteristics. The analysis was performed by surveying changes in the selected parameter of the atmosphere (i.e. air temperature, precipitation rate, carbon dioxide, and methane), in the terrestrial (i.e. land surface temperature, vegetation index, soil moisture), and marine (i.e. Sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration throughout the country. The second level of measurements will be conducted by scaling down the monitoring process in order to determine a finer range of the same parameters in three selected regions across the country including (the Nile Delta region, the New Delta region, and the Toshka region). These sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem features and functions to enable targeted correlations between parameters to be performed for the entire country and three specific regions. The results of this research highlighted the differences in selected parameters in the past 20 years. Land surface temperature, air temperature and sea surface temperature were highly correlated reflecting the interaction between the three ecosystems, atmospheric, marine and terrestrial. There is a positive relationship between air temperature and LST with R = 0.99 and with SST R2 = 0.98. Moreover, air temperature affects aerosol content (R = 0.4), while it is negatively related to precipitation rate (R = -0.5). Moreover, the concentration of Chl-A varied over time in the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea where it had a positive relationship with sea surface temperature (R2 = 0.77). In conclusion, climate change has a direct impact on the environment and different ecosystems which is reflected through the selected factors.

The objective of the project:

The project focuses on estimating some climate factors using satellite observations to determine climate changes over Egypt.

The study shows the effects of climate change on: various criteria:

For the oceanography sector - the northern and eastern coasts of Egypt will be applied by surveying the change in selected parameters such as sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a.

For land changes, land surface temperature, soil moisture and vegetation variables were studied.

For atmospheric changes: air temperature, precipitation rate, carbon dioxide, and methane were studied.

A collection of images that express the outputs